The LiederNet Archive
This website stores both public-domain AND copyright-protected material.
It is illegal to copy and distribute material marked copyright without permission.

What are all these red, green, and white dots??

The texts in this collection come from a variety of different sources including published scores, online poetry collections, books, CD booklets, and concert programs. Details about specific settings also come from bibliographies and catalogs, sometimes score unseen. Because composers sometimes make changes to the texts they set to music, we try to show these changes in footnotes. When possible, an icon will indicate where such comparisons have been performed. For this purpose we use images of red, green, or white dots.

The Legend of the Dots


When a dot appears beside the information about the poet or author of a text, it refers to the text as a stand-alone work, i.e., as one would see it in a poetry collection, play, or book.

When a dot appears beside the details of a given composer's setting, it refers to the text as sung, or as it would be found in the musical score.


    [text verified] - the text has been checked at least once against a source believed to be reliable.*
    [text not yet verified] - no information
    [text needs to be verified] - the text needs to be checked

* When possible we will provide bibliographic information. Some on-line sources regarded as reliable for poetry are websites such as Bartleby, Zeno.Org - Meine Bibliothek, Gutenberg, Wikisource. Many primary sources are also available online at Google Books, Project Gutenberg, and the Petrucci Music Library (formerly the International Music Score Library Project, IMSLP)


Your help in verifying questionable texts is greatly appreciated! Please contact Emily Ezust via e-mail:

(emily at lieder dot net)
and if possible, indicate if your source is a score, CD booklet, concert program(me), poetry book, or internet poetry website. The more specific the better!